Exemplary Organizational Leadership – An Exploratory Study in light of Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) Leadership Traits


  • Abdul Ahad Khan SZABIST, Karachi, Sindh – Pakistan
  • Kamran Ahmed Soomro SZABIST, Karachi, Sindh – Pakistan


Leadership, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), Quran, Hadith


Leadership has been instilled in humans from the very beginning. When Prophet Adam (Peace Be Upon Him) was sent on earth, Allah SWT (God Almighty) gave him leadership qualities so he could preach and call people towards the right path. This process of sending Prophets in the world kept on going because Allah SWT (God Almighty) wanted to guide people to the right path in order to have success of life and hereafter. The study aims to assess few leadership qualities of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) – Last messenger of AWT (SWT) and see the applications and practicality of those leadership qualities in corporate leaders and managers. Primary data has been collected through semi structured questionnaire on purposive sampling and analyzed using thematic content analysis. The study found five top qualities (communication, positive regard, knowledge, patience and team work) important to become an exemplary and successful organizational leader.


Berg, D. B. (2017, March 1). THE WISE AND UNWISE LEADER. Retrieved from www.activated.org:https://activated.org/en/relationships/challenges/in-the-workplace/item/5414-the-wise-and-unwise-leader

al-Ja'fai, A. A.-M. (n.d.). Sahih Bukhari - Book of Hadith.

Anderson, M. H., & Sun, P. Y. (2015). Reviewing Leadership Styles: Overlaps and the Need for a New ‘Full-Range’ Theory. International Journal of Management Reviews, 76-96.

Ariss, A. A. (2014). Global Talent Management: Challenges, Strategies, and Opportunities. Springer International Publishing.

Beekun, I. R. (2012). Character centered leadership: Muhammad (p) as an ethical role model for CEOs. Journal of Management Development, 1003-1020.

Black, B., & Hughes , S. (2017). Ego Free Leadership: Ending the Unconscious Habits that Hijack Your Business. Greenleaf Book Group Press.

Bukhari, I. (n.d.). Sahih Bukhari - Book of Hadith.

Carlyle, T. (1840). On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History.

Chapman, A. L., & Giri, P. (2017). Learning to Lead: Tools for Self Assessment of Leadership Skills and Styles. Springer, Cham.

Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great. Willian Collins.

Dixon, M. L., & Hart, L. K. (2010). The Impact of Path-Goal Leadership Styles on Work Group Effectiveness and Turnover Intention. Journal of Managerial Issues, 52-69.

Editorial Desk, C. (n.d.). Top 06 leadership challenges. Retrieved from https://www.ccl.org/articles/leading-effectively-articles/top-6-leadership-challenges/: https://www.ccl.org

Gelens, J., Hofmans, J., Dries, N., & Pepermans, R. (2013). Talent management and organisational justice: employee reactions to high potential identification. HRM Journal, 159-175.

Gilbert, E. (2006). Eat, Pray, Love. Penguin.

Hadith, B. o. (n.d.). Bukhari.

Hadith, B. o. (n.d.). Muslim.

Hannah, T., & Avolio, B. J. (2011). The locus of leader character. The Leadership Quarterly, 979-983.

Hart, M. (1978). The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in the History. In M. Hart, The 100, A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in the History (p. 33). New York.

Herrero, Gadea, Alarcon, Espert, & Salvador. (2010). What happens when we get angry? Hormonal, cardiovascular and asymmetrical brain responses. Hormones and Behavior, 276-283.

Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1970). Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory.

Holland, M. (2017, April 26). Avoid These 3 Types of Unwise Leaders. Retrieved from www.linkedin.com: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/avoid-3-types-unwise-leaders-michael-holland

I Nonaka, H. T. (2011). The wise leader. Harvard Business Review, 89(5):58-67, 146.

Khan. (2012). OD. JISR, 118-119.

Khan, Z. (1980). Muhammad: Seal of the Prophets. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Kouzes, Posner. (2012). The Leadership Challenge Model. Retrieved from http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/home.aspx

Liborius, P. (2017). What Does Leaders' Character Add to Transformational Leadership? The Journal of Psychology - Interdisciplinary and Applied , 299-320.

Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. London: Sage.

livepopulation.com. (2017). https://www.livepopulation.com/country/pakistan.html. Retrieved from LivePopulation: www.livepopulation.com

Ozanne, J., & Hudson, L. (1988). Alternative Ways of Seeking Knowledge in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 508-521.

Quran. (Chapter 1, verse 269).

Quran. (Chapter 17, Verse 70).

Quran. (Chapter 21, verse 108).

Quran. (Chapter 3 verse 159). Quran.

Quran. (Chapter 31, verse 18).

Quran. (Chapter 33, verse 21).

Quran. (Chapter 33, verse 21).

Quran. (Chapter 33, verse 22).

Quran. (Chapter 33, verse 22).

Quran. (Chapter 49, verse 11).

Quran. (Chapter 68, verse 4).

Quran. (Chapter 69, verse 40).

Quran. (Chapter 7, verse 199).

Quran. (Chapter 9, verse 128).

Quran. (Chpater 24, verse 51).

Quran. (verse 02). Surah Jum'ah.

Quran. (verse 108). Surah Yusuf.

Quran. (verse 119). Surah Taubah.

Quran. (verse 135). Surah Nisa.

Quran. (verse 159). Surah Ale Imran.

Quran. (Verse 21). Surah Ahzab.

Quran. (verse 40). Surah Shura'a.

Quran. (verse 63). Surah Furqan.

Quran. (Verse 71). Surah Ahzab.

Quran. (verse 91). Surah Nahl.

Rizki, F., Armanu, T., Surachman, & Rofiaty. (2017). STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP STYLE, WORK ETHICS, JOB SATISFACTION, AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE. Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences.

Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. Organization Science, 577-594.

Shedd, D. (2011, April 1). Humility, A Leadership Attribute Throughout The Ages. Retrieved from www.businessinsider.com: http://www.businessinsider.com/humility-a-leadership-attribute-throughout-the-ages-2011-4

Sosik, J. J., & Cameron, J. C. (2010). Character and authentic transformational leadership behavior: Expanding the ascetic self toward others. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 251-269.

Sostrin, J. (2017, October 10). To Be a Great Leader, You Have to Learn How to Delegate Well. Retrieved from www.hbr.org: https://hbr.org/2017/10/to-be-a-great-leader-you-have-to-learn-how-to-delegate-well

Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

Stogdill, R. M. (1974). Trait Theory.

TDKTECH. (2017). Key Components of Organizational Leadership. Retrieved from tdktech: www.tdktech.com

Trapp, R. (2017, March 27). Why Your Organization Needs You To Check Your Ego At The Door. Retrieved from www.forbes.com: https://www.forbes.com/sites/rogertrapp/2017/03/27/why-your-organization-needs-you-to-check-your-ego-at-the-door/#49bb72f21bb6

Warrick, D. D. (2011). The Urgent Need for Skilled Transformational Leaders: Integrating. JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP, ACCOUNTABILITY AND ETHICS, 11-26.

Yukl, G. (2012). Effective Leadership Behavior: What We Know and What Questions Need More Attention. ACAD MANAGE PERSPECT, 68-85.



How to Cite

Khan, A. A., & Soomro, K. A. (2020). Exemplary Organizational Leadership – An Exploratory Study in light of Prophet Muhammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) Leadership Traits. Sindh Economics & Business Review International , 2(1), 75-87. Retrieved from http://fandfonline.com/index.php/sebri/article/view/12